VCE Humanities Electives

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Accounting involves reporting and analysing financial information to track and improve business performance. Accounting plays an integral role in the successful operation and management of every organisation, from a small business to a global corporation, across a variety of industries.

VCE Accounting prepares students for a university or vocational pathway in commerce, management and accounting. It can lead to careers in areas such as financial accounting, management accounting, management and personal financial planning. In VCE Accounting students apply critical thinking skills to a range of business situations, using both manual bookkeeping and information and communications technology (ICT) to provide accounting advice to business owners.

Unit 3: Financial accounting for a trading business

This unit focuses on financial accounting for a small business. Students develop their understanding of the accounting processes for recording and reporting and consider the effect of decisions made on the performance of the business. They interpret reports and information presented in a variety of formats and suggest strategies to the owner to improve the performance of the business.

Unit 4: Recording, reporting, budgeting and decision-making

In this unit students further develop their understanding of accounting for a small business. Students investigate both the role and importance of budgeting in decision making for a business. They analyse and interpret accounting reports and graphical representations to evaluate the performance of a business. From this evaluation, students suggest strategies to business owners to improve business performance.

Career options:
Accountant, Auditor, Bank Officer, Company Secretary, Corporate Treasurer, Diplomat, Economics, Financial Advisor, Financial Journalist, Statistician, Stockbroker, Tax Agent, Trade Analyst, University Lecturer

NOTE: Unit 2 VCE Accounting runs in the Wednesday Block and VCE Accounting Units 3 and 4 run in the normal blocks


Unit 1 and 2 Business Management

Focuses on the necessary entrepreneurial skills and tools to plan and establish a successful business organisation.
Topics covered include establishing a business, types of businesses, sources of finance and investment, communication, legal obligations, public relations and marketing. Students are required to complete a marketing design task where they undertake and examine statistical information to make marketing decisions for a product based on factors such as demographics, customer trends, behaviours and relevant corporate social responsibility considerations.

VCE Geography

Geography is the study of the human and natural worlds, and the influence that these have on one another.

Students learn about the most recent world issues, from climate change to the impacts of current wars.
Geography is a positive, forward looking subject that offers students a chance to apply cutting-edge technologies and study the latest approaches to social and environmental issues, thus preparing students to make positive change from a local to an international scale.

Students undertake fieldwork in each unit to investigate the concepts learnt in the classroom.

Geography graduates are some of the most sought after employees in the modern workforce and have a vast array of career paths available to them, including: International Aid work
Disaster Management
Town and Social Planning
Wildlife Management
Climatography and plenty more.

Unit 1:
Hazards and disasters
In this unit students undertake an overview of hazards and disasters before investigating two contrasting types of hazards and disasters in detail. Some examples that may be studied include bushfires, floods, infectious diseases, and epidemics.
Students then proceed to explore the ways in which humans have responded to selected hazards, including through specific measures such as prediction and warning programs and community preparedness.
As part of their studies students undertake fieldwork to investigate the impacts of a hazard and present this in the form of a report by collecting and processing primary and secondary data using appropriate methods from fieldwork, including the use of spatial technologies.

Unit 2:
Tourism – Issues and Challenges
As the travel and tourism industry is directly responsible for one in every twelve jobs globally, the growth of tourism at all scales requires careful management to ensure environmentally sustainable and economically viable tourism.
In this unit students investigate the characteristics of tourism: where it has developed, its various forms, how it has changed and continues to change and its impact on people, places and environments, issues and challenges of ethical tourism. Students select contrasting examples of tourism from within Australia and elsewhere in the world to support their investigations.

Students undertake fieldwork in this unit to evaluate the measures taken to enhance the positive impacts and minimise the negative impacts of tourism at our selected location.

NOTE: VCE Geography Unit 1 /2 can be undertaken in either the Wednesday block OR the normal blocks.

Unit 3:
Changing the Land
In this unit students will investigate two aspects of geographical change- land cover change and land use change.
Students investigate two major processes that are changing land cover in many regions of the world: melting glaciers and ice sheets, and deforestation.
They investigate the distribution and causes of the two processes. One case study location will be investigated for each of the processes to develop a greater understanding of the changes to land cover, the impacts of these changes and responses to these changes at different scales.

At a local scale students investigate land use change using appropriate fieldwork techniques and secondary sources. They investigate the processes of change, the reasons for change and the impacts of change.

Unit 4:
Human Population – Trends and Issues
In this unit students will investigate the geography of human populations. Through the study of population dynamics, students investigate growth and decline in fertility and mortality, together with population movements. To illustrate the dynamics of population, students examine examples from within and between countries with different economic and political conditions and social structures.

Students undertake investigations into two countries with significant population trends in different parts of the world: a growing population of one country and an ageing population of another country. For these two case studies, students investigate issues arising from each population trend and the challenges that arise in coping with the issues.
They also evaluate the effectiveness of strategies in response to these issues and challenges.


History Revolutions

Modern History

History is the practice of understanding and making meaning of the past.
Students learn about their historical past, their shared history and the people, ideas and events that have created present societies and cultures.

VCE History is relevant to students with a wide range of expectations, including those who wish to pursue formal study at tertiary level, as well as providing valuable knowledge and skills for an understanding of the underpinnings of contemporary society.

Unit 1: Change and Conflict In this unit students investigate the nature of social, political, economic and cultural change in the later part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Modern History provides students with an opportunity to explore the significant events, ideas, individuals and movements that shaped the social, political, economic and technological conditions and developments that have defined the modern world.

Unit 2: The Changing World Order In this unit students investigate the nature and impact of the Cold War and challenges and changes to social, political and economic structures and systems of power in the second half of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century.

Units 3 and 4 Revolutions
Students investigate the significant historical causes and consequences of political revolution.
Revolutions represent great ruptures in time and are a major turning point in the collapse and destruction of an existing political order which results in extensive change to society.
Revolutions are caused by the interplay of events, ideas, individuals and popular movements, and the interplay between the political, social, cultural, economic and environmental conditions.
Their consequences have a profound effect on the political and social structures of the post-revolutionary society.
Revolution is a dramatically accelerated process whereby the new regime attempts to create political, social, cultural and economic change and transformation based on the regime’s ideology.
Change in a post-revolutionary society is not guaranteed or inevitable and continuities can remain from the pre-revolutionary society. The implementation of revolutionary ideology was often challenged internally by civil war and externally by foreign threats.
These challenges can result in a compromise of revolutionary ideals and extreme measures of violence, oppression and terror.

Causes of revolution

  • What were the significant causes of revolution? ·
  • How did the actions of popular movements and particular individuals contribute to triggering a revolution?
  • To what extent did social tensions and ideological conflicts contribute to the outbreak of revolution?

Consequences of revolution

  • What were the consequences of revolution?
  • How did the new regime consolidate its power?
  • What were the experiences of those who lived through the revolution?
    To what extent was society changed and revolutionary ideas achieved or compromised?


Across Units 1 to 4 in VCE Legal Studies students develop skills in defining and appropriately using legal terminology, discuss, interpret and analyse legal principles and information, and apply their legal reasoning and understanding to actual and/or hypothetical scenarios. The key knowledge areas covered in each unit are outlined as below.

Unit 1 Guilt and Liability

In this introductory unit students develop an understanding of legal foundations, such as the different types and sources of law and the existence of a court hierarchy in Victoria. Students investigate key concepts of criminal law and civil law and apply these to actual and/or hypothetical scenarios to determine whether an accused may be found guilty of a crime, or liable in a civil dispute. In doing so, students develop an appreciation of the way in which legal principles and information are used in making reasoned judgments and conclusions about the culpability of an accused, and the liability of a party in a civil dispute.

Unit 2 Sanctions, Remedies and Rights

Criminal law and civil law aim to protect the rights of individuals. When rights are infringed, a case or dispute may arise which needs to be determined or resolved, and sanctions or remedies may be imposed. This unit focuses on the enforcement of criminal law and civil law, the methods and institutions that may be used to determine a criminal case or resolve a civil dispute, and the purposes and types of sanctions and remedies and their effectiveness. Students undertake a detailed investigation of two criminal cases and two civil cases from the past four years to form a judgment about the ability of sanctions and remedies to achieve the principles of justice.

Unit 3 Rights and Justice

The Victorian justice system, which includes the criminal and civil justice systems, aims to protect the rights of individuals and uphold the principles of justice: fairness, equality and access. In this unit students examine the methods and institutions in the justice system and consider their appropriateness in determining criminal cases and resolving civil disputes. Students consider the Victorian court hierarchy, the different roles within the criminal justice system, and the ability of sanctions and remedies to achieve their purposes.

Unit 4 The People and the Law

This unit involves the study of Australia’s laws and legal system and the institutions that make and reform our laws. In this unit students explore how the Australian Constitution establishes the law making powers of the Commonwealth and state parliaments, and protects the Australian people. Students develop an understanding of the significance of the High Court in protecting and interpreting the Australian Constitution. They investigate parliament and the courts, and the relationship between the two in law making.

Career Options

Administrative Assistant, Politician, Barrister, Senior Manager, Police Officer, Magistrate, Clerical Officer, Solicitor, Journalist, Clerk of Courts, University Lecturer, Diplomat, Youth Worker, Legal Clerk, Legal Secretary