VCE Humanities Electives

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Accounting involves reporting and analysing financial information to track and improve business performance. Accounting plays an integral role in the successful operation and management of every organisation, from a small business to a global corporation, across a variety of industries.

VCE Accounting prepares students for a university or vocational pathway in commerce, management and accounting. It can lead to careers in areas such as financial accounting, management accounting, management and personal financial planning. In VCE Accounting students apply critical thinking skills to a range of business situations, using both manual bookkeeping and information and communications technology (ICT) to provide accounting advice to business owners.

Unit 3: Financial accounting for a trading business

This unit focuses on financial accounting for a small business. Students develop their understanding of the accounting processes for recording and reporting and consider the effect of decisions made on the performance of the business. They interpret reports and information presented in a variety of formats and suggest strategies to the owner to improve the performance of the business.

Unit 4: Recording, reporting, budgeting and decision-making

In this unit students further develop their understanding of accounting for a small business. Students investigate both the role and importance of budgeting in decision making for a business. They analyse and interpret accounting reports and graphical representations to evaluate the performance of a business. From this evaluation, students suggest strategies to business owners to improve business performance.

NOTE: VCE Accounting 3 /4 runs in the normal blocks


Business Management leads to a huge range of courses and careers, including advertising, marketing, banking, finance, real estate and economic planning. Business Management is an excellent subject for students who are interested in a whole range of vocational pathways, including apprenticeships and traineeships and the establishment of a small business. Business Management is a great choice for any student wishing to understand and contribute to the economy.

Unit 1 Planning a Business
Unit 2 Establishing a Business

Unit 1 and 2 Business Management focuses on the necessary entrepreneurial skills and tools to plan and establish a successful business organisation. Topics covered include establishing a business, types of businesses, sources of finance and investment, communication, public relations and marketing. Students are required to complete a business design assignment where they undertake, examine statistical information and make business decisions based on factors such as demographics.

Unit 3 The Nature of Business
Unit 4 Transforming a Business

Unit 3 and 4 Business Management focuses on a huge range of topics which include business ethics and corporate social responsibility, management structures, stakeholder and shareholder obligations and expectations, business operations, transformation processes in business structures, motivational theories, the impact of business on the economy and human resources management.

Career Options

Auditor, Bank Officer, Company Secretary, Corporate Treasurer, Diplomat, Economics, Financial Advisor, Financial Journalist, Financial Planner/Manager, Human Resource Management, Management Consultant, Market Researcher, Portfolio Manager, Project Manager, Statistician, Stockbroker, Tax Agent, Trade Analyst, University Lecturer


Geography is the study of the human and natural worlds, and the influence that these have on one another. Students learn about the most recent world issues, from climate change to the impacts of current wars. Geography is a positive, forward looking subject that offers students a chance to apply cutting-edge technologies and study the latest approaches to social and environmental issues, thus preparing students to make positive change from a local to an international scale. Students undertake fieldwork in each unit to investigate the concepts learnt in the classroom.

Geography graduates are some of the most sought after employees in the modern workforce and have a vast array of career paths available to them, including: International Aid work, Disaster Management, Tourism, Town and Social Planning, Wildlife Management, Oceanography, Climatography and plenty more.

Unit 1: Hazards and disasters

In this unit students undertake an overview of hazards and disasters before investigating two contrasting types of hazards and disasters in detail. Some examples that may be studied include bushfires, floods, infectious diseases, and epidemics. Students then proceed to explore the ways in which humans have responded to selected hazards, including through specific measures such as prediction and warning programs and community preparedness.

Unit 2: Tourism

As the travel and tourism industry is directly responsible for one in every twelve jobs globally, the growth of tourism at all scales requires careful management to ensure environmentally sustainable and economically viable tourism. In this unit students investigate the characteristics of tourism, with particular emphasis on tourist destinations, the various types of tourism, how tourism has changed and continues to change over time, and its impacts on people, places and environments. They select two contrasting examples of tourism from within Australia and elsewhere in the world to investigate in detail. Students undertake fieldwork in this unit to evaluate the measures taken to enhance the positive impacts and minimise the negative impacts of tourism at our selected location.

Unit 3: Changing the Land

In this unit students will investigate two aspects of geographical change land cover change and land use change. Students will develop their understanding of how deforestation, desertification and melting glaciers change land cover in different regions of the world. The distribution and causes of these processes are investigated with their impacts and responses considered in relation to specific case study locations. Students will then investigate a local area to describe the processes and impacts of land use change. They will attend fieldwork and use these techniques along with secondary sources to analyse and explain the land use change.

Unit 4: Human Population

In this unit students will investigate the geography of human populations. They will explore the patterns of population change, movement and distribution, and how governments, organisations and individuals have responded to those changes in different parts of the world. Students will study global population dynamics and an overview of world population growth since the 1700s and projected changes into the 21st century. Population changes by growth, decline in fertility, mortality and migration will also be explored, with specific case studies used. Social, economic, political and environmental factors will be investigated to assist in describing the changes in population with population theories, models and data used to form this understanding.

NOTE: VCE Geography Unit 1 /2 can be undertaken in either the Wednesday block OR the normal blocks. VCE Geography 3 /4 runs in the normal blocks.


History is the practice of understanding and making meaning of the past. Students learn about their historical past, their shared history and the people, ideas and events that have created present societies and cultures. VCE History is relevant to students with a wide range of expectations, including those who wish to pursue formal study at tertiary level, as well as providing valuable knowledge and skills for an understanding of the underpinnings of contemporary society.

Unit 1 Twentieth Century History 1918–1939

In Unit 1 students explore the events, ideologies and movements of the period after World War One. Students gain an understanding of new ideologies at the end of the WWI including socialism, communism and fascism. They will investigate the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany in 1933, the persecution of the Jews and the Holocaust. Students also focus on the social life and cultural expression in the 1920s and 1930s and their relation to the technological, political and economic changes of the period. Students explore particular forms of cultural expression from the period in the context of Germany. They will explore the ways in which particular forms of cultural expression such as art, literature, architecture, film and music both influenced and reflected social, economic and political change. Economic instability, territorial aggression and totalitarianism combined to draw the world into a second major conflict in 1939.

Topics covered are:

  • Political Ideologies: Socialism, Communism, Fascism
  • Nazi Germany
  • Holocaust
  • Cultural Expression

Unit 2 Twentieth Century History 1945–2000

The focus of Unit 2 is on the causes of the Cold War in the aftermath of World War Two. In this area of study students focus on causes and consequences of the Cold War in the period 1945-1991. Students will have the opportunity to investigate the competing ideologies of Communism in the USSR, and Democracy in the United States that underpinned the tensions of the Cold War.

We look at significant features of the Cold War with a focus on the:

  • Vietnam War
  • Building of the Berlin Wall
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Space race
  • Propaganda

Students will also investigate the significant causes of challenge to, and change in, existing political and social orders in the second half of the twentieth century, including conflicts such as the anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa and social and political movements such as Civil Rights campaigns in the USA.

History Revolutions

Unit 3 Russian Revolution 1905-1927 and
Unit 4 American Revolution 1754-1789

Outcome 1 Causes of Revolution

Students analyse the long-term causes and short-term triggers of revolution. They evaluate how revolutionary outbreaks are caused by significant events, ideas, individuals and popular movements and assess how these were directly or indirectly influenced by the social, political, economic and cultural conditions.

Students investigate the conditions, ideologies and individuals that contributed to the outbreak of the October 1917 revolution.

Topics include:

  • The influence of ideologies such as Marxist-Leninist theory
  • The actions of individuals such as Tsar Nicholas II, Lenin and Trotsky
  • The role of popular movements and revolutionary groups including workers’ protests, peasants’ uprisings and soldiers’ mutinies

In America, students investigate oppressive conditions of British colonialism, revolutionary ideas, and the role of key revolutionaries in achieving change.

Topics include:

  • British oppression, tax and Coercive Acts, the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party
  • The influence of revolutionary ideas such as Enlightenment, Natural Rights and Representative Government
  • The actions of individuals such as Samuel Adams and Benjamin Franklin
  • The role of popular movements, such as the Patriots and the Sons of Liberty

Outcome 2 Consequences of Revolution

Students analyse the consequences of the revolution and evaluate the extent to which it brought change to society, students analyse the significant challenges that confronted the new regime after the initial outbreak of revolution. Furthermore, they evaluate the success of the new regime’s responses to these challenges and the extent to which the consequences of revolution resulted in dramatic and wide reaching social, political, economic and cultural change, progress or decline.

In Russia, students explore the challenges to the new regime. Topics include:

  • The Civil War and period of Red Terror
  • Compromises of revolutionaries
  • Success of the revolution in achieving change

In America challenges to the new establishment are explored. Topics include:

  • The War of Independence
  • Economic challenges and the treatment of Native Americans and African Americans
  • Reasons for compromise on issues including slavery and the Bill of Rights
  • Experiences of social groups and changes to their everyday lives.


Across Units 1 to 4 in VCE Legal Studies students develop skills in defining and appropriately using legal terminology, discuss, interpret and analyse legal principles and information, and apply their legal reasoning and understanding to actual and/or hypothetical scenarios. The key knowledge areas covered in each unit are outlined as below.

Unit 1 Guilt and Liability

In this introductory unit students develop an understanding of legal foundations, such as the different types and sources of law and the existence of a court hierarchy in Victoria. Students investigate key concepts of criminal law and civil law and apply these to actual and/or hypothetical scenarios to determine whether an accused may be found guilty of a crime, or liable in a civil dispute. In doing so, students develop an appreciation of the way in which legal principles and information are used in making reasoned judgments and conclusions about the culpability of an accused, and the liability of a party in a civil dispute.

Unit 2 Sanctions, Remedies and Rights

Criminal law and civil law aim to protect the rights of individuals. When rights are infringed, a case or dispute may arise which needs to be determined or resolved, and sanctions or remedies may be imposed. This unit focuses on the enforcement of criminal law and civil law, the methods and institutions that may be used to determine a criminal case or resolve a civil dispute, and the purposes and types of sanctions and remedies and their effectiveness. Students undertake a detailed investigation of two criminal cases and two civil cases from the past four years to form a judgment about the ability of sanctions and remedies to achieve the principles of justice.

Unit 3 Rights and Justice

The Victorian justice system, which includes the criminal and civil justice systems, aims to protect the rights of individuals and uphold the principles of justice: fairness, equality and access. In this unit students examine the methods and institutions in the justice system and consider their appropriateness in determining criminal cases and resolving civil disputes. Students consider the Victorian court hierarchy, the different roles within the criminal justice system, and the ability of sanctions and remedies to achieve their purposes.

Unit 4 The People and the Law

This unit involves the study of Australia’s laws and legal system and the institutions that make and reform our laws. In this unit students explore how the Australian Constitution establishes the law making powers of the Commonwealth and state parliaments, and protects the Australian people. Students develop an understanding of the significance of the High Court in protecting and interpreting the Australian Constitution. They investigate parliament and the courts, and the relationship between the two in law making.

Career Options

Administrative Assistant, Politician, Barrister, Senior Manager, Police Officer, Magistrate, Clerical Officer, Solicitor, Journalist, Clerk of Courts, University Lecturer, Diplomat, Youth Worker, Legal Clerk, Legal Secretary